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The Prevention and Control of Mycotoxins

    Mycotoxin contamination of food is usually a process of continuous effect of having fungal infection in the field begins, followed by a gradual increase in the harvest, drying and storage process, therefore, the prevention and control of mycotoxins in the food include prenatal and postnatal prevention control of mycotoxins in grain fields and storage process control, the establishment of monitoring and early warning mechanism to indicate mycotoxin contamination, efficient removal and safe disposal. Mycotoxins produced by inhibiting the growth of fungi and toxin biosynthesis inhibition control, prevention and control, including prenatal stress resistance breeding, field management, the use of biological and chemical pesticides, postpartum cuts including improved drying and storage conditions, the use of biological or chemical agents and so on.
    At present, the through conventional breeding and transgenic breeding varieties bred antifungal many research reports, US researchers through conventional breeding techniques to breed new lines of corn resistant Aspergillus flavus breeds. China's wheat germplasm are being used for developing resistant breeds around the world. China and Canada through breeding techniques have been bred anti Fusarium graminearum strains. Research by transgenic crop breeding to enhance antifungal capacity is greater, will encode acetyltransferase gene Tri101 into barley. ,
    Suppressed by good field management of mycotoxins produced is considered the most effective mycotoxin prevention and control strategies. Fungi generally easy to grow in plant breeding injured position, so to prevent mechanical damage or pest damage plants can largely reduce pollution mycotoxins. At the same time, good operating field may also reduce mycotoxin contamination. Fungicides and insecticides are the traditional method of prevention and control of mycotoxin contamination, many types of applications, but these chemicals is limited by their toxicity and residual resistance problem, at present, the researchers carried out a biotechnology prevention and control of mycotoxins strategy. In field trials, Aureobasidium (Aureobasidium pullulans) can effectively prevent carbon black Aspergillus strains (Aspergillus carbonarius), to reduce the grapes rot caused by bacteria and reduce OTA content in wine. When the corn ear, applying non-toxigenic A. flavus in the air, the use of non-toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus competitive inhibition toxigenic strains, namely in the fields sown not produce toxin aflatoxin, produced it with toxin aflatoxin conducted field survival competition, compared with the control group, the proportion of 85%.aflatoxin elimination
    Mycotoxins in food post prevention and control strategies is mainly used a different approach to mycotoxins efficient, safe removal of the main methods include physical and chemical methods, biological mildew, degradation and processing technology cuts and other mycotoxins. For removal of mycotoxins, at home and abroad, the more common methods include physical removal and adsorption, and chemical processing. Mycotoxin contamination in grain can be removed by many physical, chemical treatment methods like washing and rinsing, heat, ionizing radiation, the inorganic adsorbent, and ozone oxidation treatment chemicals and the like. In neutral and room temperature, strong ozone oxidants can inhibit filamentous fungi in a very short time to multiply and degrade a variety of mycotoxins and no residue, to ensure that nutrition and quality of food and feed, but the application of ozone is limited to fungi species, growth stage, the application concentration and other factors.
    However, many physical and chemical detoxification methods have been tried, but the detoxification efficiency is not high, and the changes in the quality of food, resulting in the loss of nutrients. Notably, the EU does not allow these applications in the food production process to eliminate mycotoxins. In addition, by-products are sometimes more toxic to deal with, and so they cannot be performed in large-scale application. Seeking safe and efficient low-cost methods needs to be explored further. Therefore, microbial degradation or enzyme provides a new way for the successful control of mycotoxin contamination. Currently, research on mycotoxins biodegradable globally is becoming a hot spot. Biodegradation can not only efficiently turn toxins into non-toxic products, but environmentally safe, with higher specificity, and high conversion efficiency.