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Mycotoxins Introduction

     Mycotoxins are metabolites produced by fungal in food or feed, which are harmful to humans and animals. The earliest event that mycotoxins cause poisoning is ergot poisoning in the 11th century in Europe, and clinical symptoms of poisoning have been described in the medieval icon painting. This disease is still called ergot poisoning because ergot sclerotia will form toxic alkaloids, so Acute ergot poisoning cause hallucinations and muscle spasms, and then cause limb arterial narrowing persistent necrosis.
    Now know that eating food made with moldy bread will get sick. This widespread poisoning phenomenon, was first called "spiritual fire" in Europe and later known as St. Anthony's fire . Food poisoning caused disease that deficiency of white blood cells in Russia's east Siberian in 1913, animal acute fatal hepatitis Georgia, USA in 1952 and a large of turkeys dying in the British in 1960, which bring great social impact. Mold corn and black spot sweet potato poisoning, scab poisoning at Yangtze River basin, mildew sugarcane poisoning at south of China happened to horses and cattle in 50s. Fungi and toxins have a close relationship with cancer incidence. cancer-prone areas has relationship with the presence of fungi and mycotoxins in food.
    Yellow rice that losing the original color , mainly caused by infection of yellow green penicillium, island penicillium, orange penicillium . yellow green penicillium can cause neurotoxins. Acute poisoning show as nerve paralysis, respiratory paralysis, convulsions, chronic poisoning show as  hemolytic anemia. Huang Jing and ring generated Chlorine produced by island penicillium causes liver bleeding, liver necrosis and liver cancer. Penicillin produce by orange penicillium poison kidneys. Some bleeding syndrome caused by mycotoxins, such as T2 produce by branch Fusarium and pears Fusarium, acute symptoms of convulsions, heart failure death; subacute or chronic poisoning usually gastritis, nausea, mouth, nose, throat, gastrointestinal bleeding, extreme reduction of white blood cells, abnormal lymphocytes increases, clotting time extension and so on. Toxins produced by stachybotrys mold cause skin class and leukemia symptoms, early symptoms are salivation, lymph nodes under the jaw, eyes, oral mucosa, lips congestion, and then mucosal cracking. Beginning leukocytosis, platelets leukopenia followed, clotting time longer, many organizations were necrotic lesions, resulting in death.